The Process of Moral Changes

When I was younger version of myself, after having finally filled to the brim a hefty CD binder with all the best that music had to offer, the historic movement from CD to mp3 occurred, rendering such a collection all but useless. And so too did the process of purchasing make a fundamental shift. Instead of going to the store and looking through their selection of CDs, possibly taking a chance and buying something you did not all-too-well know, you suddenly found yourself inundated with the world of online music, and all of it from the comfort of your own home.

It was not very long before my annual spending on music plummeted from a relatively big number to zero. Music was online, instantly reproducible, and unregulated, so as a consequence all but the least tech-savvy of my cohorts and I downloaded it illegally and with ease. In those days, I did not think much about morality, although some part of my subconscious must have known something was wrong, as I often found myself justifying the act not only to others, but to myself.1)Such justifications are usually signs that you have a cognitive dissonance! “I’ll just listen to all of the songs to see if the album is worth it, and if so, I’ll buy it.” Never happened, but it sounds nice. Then there were: “Music is a digital good, which has both no marginal production cost” (and therefore entails no loss when stolen), or: “music is a non-excludable good” (my stealing it does not prevent anyone else from accessing it, whereas a CD in a store does), or: “I wouldn’t have purchased the music anyway” (so there is no loss for the company, but there is the positive value I get from it, a net win), or: “Humans have a right to culture” (so therefore I am under no obligation to pay, and in fact, am a moral crusader for the public good), et cetera and ad nauseam.

Needless to say, I no longer consume music this way, but know a surprising number of people who steal digital media and have no qualms with it, who would, however, judge the stealing of physical media in a store to be abhorrent. Can the physicality of the object or the method of distribution play the deciding role in the ethics of the situation? I think the most likely explanation which accounts for this phenomenon is that a change in technology has caused a change in morality, or at least how we respond to a moral question, instead of us deciding based on the relevant moral aspects of the situation alone. In other words, instead of taking an ethical stance on an issue (e.g. it is generally wrong to steal) and then applying it in an actual situation, the perhaps all too human response is almost the exact converse: wait for a change in the world, in this example, the ease of stealing music online and the lack of infrastructure to prevent theft, and then backfill a moral stance that is advantageous to the new situation. In other words: I claim it is the sheer ease with which one can steal music that is the driving factor of people’s willingness to call it a moral, or perhaps amoral act. People in a physical store cannot get away with stealing very easily and there is a large risk associated with doing so. Imagine a situation with these factors removed: there are no cameras, alarms, or guards at clothing stores and if you did somehow get caught, the penalty would be trivial. I believe that not only would many more people steal from stores, but would have little to no moral qualms about doing so, adjusting their conscience to the facts of the day.

This is important because it should make us realize that our moral compasses, which we normally hold to objectively guide us unwaveringly to The Moral, are subject to failure simply due to the arbitrary circumstances of the times. Instead of looking at the situation and taking a moral position given the facts, a type of world change (e.g. technological) puts us in a new situation where we need to form a moral opinion, and we often do so by only considering our self interest, although we are likely unaware of it, as is the case with downloading media illegally. This phenomenon can have vast, negative consequences.

Consider a much more grave issue: slavery in the United States. In 1860, over 25% of households had slaves in states where slavery was legal. We often look back at that time with horror, and are pretty sure we would not have had slaves ourselves. To most everyone, it is an obvious fact. But is it not plausible that this issue was not on the moral horizon at all, and that slave owners happily rationalized their misdeeds away? How else can we explain phenomena like the proposal of the “mental illness” drapetomania, which a medical physician in the time of slavery in the United States put forth as a theory to account for the fact that many slaves wanted to run away – they must have been crazy. Can you imagine a mind, and that of a doctor nonetheless, that could not conceive of the fact that slaves might prefer not to be in bondage? And yet it took a civil war, an outside force, to put an end to the terrible practice, at least in the United States. Now, in the 21st century, we are of course sure that we personally would not have been found among the slaveholders. With the distance so great and our personal interest so little, we can confidently and easily make this claim. It evokes the oft-cited and yet powerful quote by Schopenhauer:

All truth passes through three stages: First, it is ridiculed; Second, it is violently opposed; Third, it is accepted as self-evident.2)Original German: Alle Wahrheit durchläuft drei Stufen. Zuerst wird sie lächerlich gemacht oder verzerrt. Dann wird sie bekämpft. Und schließlich wird sie als selbstverständlich angenommen.

The question is not, however, what things in the past were wrong and right – as we have just seen, these are often easy to sort out through the simplifying lens of hindsight. The question is rather: what practices do we engage in today which are immoral, but seem moral, due to custom and circumstance? How will people judge these practices 100 years in the future? A related question is: once we believe was have a sufficiently justified moral stance, what is the best way to implement such a change? These questions eat up a lot of my precious time and are the reason I made you read all of the words up to now.

For years I thought that, given a well enough presented argument, people would change their minds on a given issue. It is not that I think that this pursuit is fruitless (indeed, it would render that which I am now undertaking futile), but I no longer believe it to be a very effective method. Instead, as stated above, I believe economic or technological changes to be the most effective way to make moral changes. This seems unfortunate, as it takes to a large degree human agency out of the morality equation, but seems nevertheless true. Consider a concrete example, one close to my heart: vegetarianism.

I think that most modern day issues have a level of complexity never before seen and that almost all issues have extensive pro and con lists that makes the forming of an absolute moral position extremely difficult, but with vegetarianism the case seems very clear to anyone who has done a modicum of research and who is willing to hear arguments on the matter.3)I plan to write about this topic in the future, so I will not lay out an argument here, but Ethics philosopher Peter Singer’s already 25 year old paper “All Animals Are Equal*” is a good start for the uninformed. I believe being vegetarian to be one of if not the most effective way for the average human to make a difference in the world, whether your concern is the billions 4)It is often easy to get lost in abstraction with large numbers. As Stalin famously said: “One death is a tragedy. A million deaths is just a statistic.” Consider the richness and profundity of your life: past, present, and future. Now imagine the systematic snuffing out of that whole life, one million times, and one thousand times that same process, every single year. (with a “b”) of animals that suffer and die under extremely horrible circumstances each year, climate change due to greenhouse gases, world hunger (as it takes more food to raise animals for consumption than it does to eat the food directly), or water scarcity. And I ask you, if none of those things listed concern you, what does?

Despite all of this, I believe the big wave of change to vegetarianism will come not from persuasion and outreach, although, they are effective to some degree and therefore worthwhile approaches. I believe, rather, that in the not-too-distant future, lab-grown meat will become ubiquitous and, not subject to the massive infrastructure and process costs incurred by standard meat production, will be significantly cheaper than “real” meat. I think, like most technological changes, people will be skeptical at first, but the sheer market forces of the situation will eventually drive the decision to lab-grown meat, with which the horrid factory farming system of today simply will not be able to compete. The next generation of humans will fulfill Schopenhauer’s expectations, and, distanced from the everydayness of meat consumption, shake their fingers so condescendingly and so confidently at the past, claiming our treatment of and apathy toward animals under the system of factory farming in the late 20th and early 21st centuries to be among our darkest days. It will be a frustrating and yet joyful time to be alive.

I do not expect to have changed your mind about a topic here, but I hope to have raised your awareness of the potentiality of self-serving stances on moral issues to some degree as well as to the possibility that our moral positions come not from within, but are in some sense determined by our environment, and that that fact demands that we consciously observe and reflect upon our moral decisions in our everyday goings on. As always, I would love to hear any comments or criticisms.

Footnotes   [ + ]

1. Such justifications are usually signs that you have a cognitive dissonance!
2. Original German: Alle Wahrheit durchläuft drei Stufen. Zuerst wird sie lächerlich gemacht oder verzerrt. Dann wird sie bekämpft. Und schließlich wird sie als selbstverständlich angenommen.
3. I plan to write about this topic in the future, so I will not lay out an argument here, but Ethics philosopher Peter Singer’s already 25 year old paper “All Animals Are Equal*” is a good start for the uninformed.
4. It is often easy to get lost in abstraction with large numbers. As Stalin famously said: “One death is a tragedy. A million deaths is just a statistic.” Consider the richness and profundity of your life: past, present, and future. Now imagine the systematic snuffing out of that whole life, one million times, and one thousand times that same process, every single year.

My Experience as an American Volunteering in Heidelberg

I recently submitted a letter to the editor of the local newspaper, the Rhein-Neckar Zeitung, detailing my various failed attempts at volunteering for charities in Heidelberg. Shortly after, I received an email from the editor, in which he suggested we turn the letter into a full article, for which he would interview me. I obliged. The letter appeared a few days later in the paper, as well as online.  Unfortunately, and yet somewhat expected, the article paints a different picture than that which I meant to convey. Surprisingly, the many of the comments that the article received were negative: Either I did not try hard enough to volunteer, or I had no skills to offer the charities, etc, or other ad hoc fallacies based on pure speculation.  In light of this, I decided to write about my experiences in detail, as well as what I meant to convey in my original letter to the editor.

The Story

Shortly after moving to Heidelberg, Germany, my girlfriend, Julia,  and I decided we wanted to volunteer in our free time. This was in 2014, before the so-called “refugee crisis”, but there were still many refugees in Germany at that point in time. I often think about how I can maximize my “good” output, and decided that helping refugees, especially children, with their integration into Germany society would be among the most effective uses of my time. 1)I think the most effective cause, to which one can contribute, is vegetarianism/veganism. There are many reasons for this: 1) Billions of animals are killed each year, most under terrible conditions. Since we know many of the animals we are talking about feel pain and enjoy experiences as we do, and that we do not need meat to survive, this is morally wrong and unjustifiable. 2) It takes more resources to feed animals than we get from the animal itself, contributing to hunger issues as well as water issues, since more water is required as well. 3) Meat production contributes more to global warming than cars do, so cutting down on meat would have a sizable, positive impact on one of the world’s other largest problems. I plan to discuss this issue in more depth in another post.

Julia and I went to the Asylarbeitskreis, an organization that helps refugees and explained we would help in any capacity we could, but that specifically we could be helpful in teaching children German or English, helping them with their school work, or providing after school supervision. If that was not available, we could do something else, too. The woman at the office said it sounded great, and she would contact us in a few days. Much to our surprise, we received an email a few days later saying that there was room for our (free!) help.

I went to next to Obdach e.V., a local homeless organization. Homelessness has always been a social problem that I could not wrap my head around. How could it be that in super rich societies like the United States and Germany that such a problem could exist? In Heidelberg, there are many homeless people, who are on the street every single day. There is one man with one leg who drags himself up and down the street with his hands for more than a full work day of hours and asks for change. I wanted to investigate how this could be and to help tackle this problem, so, I offered my services. I was accepted, although I was told they had no need at the time. I could visit a man who was in social housing and keep him company, if I wanted. I was not excited by the idea, as I thought I could have a much bigger effect, but I said yes. I was warned many times that the man was very strange and could not speak clearly, and I was told she understood if I did not want to meet him again. When I met with the man, it was even worse than she said: the man was drunk, smelled like it, could not speak clearly at all, repeated himself, and after our meeting called me 70 times in a row. I told the woman at Obdach that I did not want to meet him again and she understood.

After this, I did some small jobs, like helping to renovate an apartment for a man who lived in the high rent section of the city. He had lived there for 20 years and had smoked the walls yellow, so it was time to repaint them. Everything needed to be taken down and furniture needed to be cleaned and moved. I asked myself how this man was classified as homeless and what exactly I was doing there. It seemed like I got shoved into random jobs that were at best loosely related to the topic of homelessness, and that at most I was having an extremely tiny impact.

With these thoughts, I proposed that I write an article for the local homeless newspaper that Obdach put out four times a year, thinking this might have a larger impact and support homelessness more generally. The responsible party at the organization thought it was a good idea, and seemed excited about the topic, which argued to make the local library services free in Heidelberg, since the homeless have less access to culture if they have to pay for all of the good literature. I wrote the article and submitted it. I was promised it would appear in the next issue of the paper and that I would receive a copy. Months passed, and I received no other jobs to do, and was not notified that the article was in the paper.  I sent many unanswered messages and was eventually told that the editor of the paper was stubborn and did not want to publish the article. It was clear there was frustration between the woman with whom I spoke and the editor of the paper. I emailed the editor multiple times and received no response. Persistent and frustrated, I continued to email. Eventually, I received an email saying that he never got the article and asked me to send it again, which I did. He promised me it would appear in the next issue. Again, months went by and no article appeared. I wrote him again and received no answers. Like the previous time, I continued to email, not accepting silence. Eventually, I was told that they would no longer be printing the paper, so the article would never appear.

While this was going on, I also proactively asked if there was anything I could do for the website of the organization, and again my offer was accepted. I met with the man responsible for maintaining it, and we had a meeting about what needed to be done and made a plan. I was going to the United States to visit my family for a month, so we would start when I got back. We planned a meeting for my return. When I came to the second meeting, I was told that the site had already been redone – the work had been contracted out. After this and the other experiences, I had been with the organization for more than a year and had accomplished almost nothing. I decided I was done with Obdach e.V2)While all this was going on, I volunteered for the Deutsch-Amerikanisches Institut in Heidelberg, but only ended up getting called every Halloween and Easter to help run parties for kids. Something good, I suppose, but not really effective.

By this time, the refugee crisis was in full force. Thousands were sent to Heidelberg, as we have a large, newly-empty US Army base where they can seek refuge. What better time to contact the Asylarbeitskreis and offer again to help out? I never received a response from them. I also read online and heard from others that they were at capacity and could not make use of any extra effort.

I went to der Paritätische Forum, a group that helps interested volunteers find matches, and asked what I could do. I met with a woman who asked me about my interests, and we then proceeded to examine different charities and organizations to find potential matches.This was very efficient and a breath of fresh air after the slow, ineffective experiences I had previously dealt with. With the contact information of five or so organizations, I left the building re-energized and positive about the prospects. I contacted all five organizations and explained who I was, how I got their information, and how I thought I could help. The first said there were no opportunities. From the rest, I received no replies. I decided to give up.

About four months later, I received an email from one of the organizations, HD Ink, apologizing for it having taken so long. Would I like to come to a meeting with the other prospective helpers and learn about the organization and get the ball rolling? Sure. I went to the meeting: we tossed a ball around for 30 minutes and learned each other’s names. Then we had to make claims about each other’s personalities just based upon appearance to show how stereotypes are not always correct. We also were told to ask questions about how the organization functions, to see if our expectations matched the reality. It was all intended to be a fun ice-breaker. We filled out paperwork saying when we could start working, how many hours a week, what our skills were, etc. The organizer was happy with my application. I asked when we started, and she said something like “well, Easter is in a couple weeks, so we will start after that.”, almost implying that in two weeks time nothing could get done. Will it surprise you at this point, dear reader, to find out that I have received no message from them, months after Easter?

This time I really gave up and decided to write the letter to the editor of the newpaper, figuring that shining a light on this apparent problem might be the most effective thing I could do and also not having the energy to search for more institutions. Shouldn’t volunteering be easier than a job search?

Lessons Learned?

Summing up my experiences, I believe I have learned a few things. If not concretely, then at least I have some suspicions, which could be more deeply investigated. I do not know which apply to just the charities I contacted, which apply to Heidelberg, and which to Germany in general. Obviously I have a relatively small sample size, so take it for what it is worth:

  • The majority of people I was in contact with did not seem very motivated to do their jobs efficiently. Things moved slowly. Emails went unanswered. On that point:
  • Emailing probably is not the best method of reaching an institution, at least in Germany. I usually prefer it because I can express myself more clearly in German when I write in advance, but in hindsight I think I should have just knocked on the doors of the various charities.
  • There seems to be a crazy imbalance in the way jobs function in Germany, and the employer has the advantage. Most German students I have talked to have done multiple unpaid internships and often struggle even to get those. I know others who, despite having master’s degrees, have all but given up getting a normal paid position and are looking instead for “traineeships”, which are another source of cheap labor from the highly educated. But this is a broader point which I may expand in another post. This seems to extend to the charity sector, which is why I mention it here. In the US, whenever I have volunteered I have been accepted immediately and have done meaningful work.
  • Charities here do not seem to have the ability to “think outside of the box”. This may be due to legal considerations or may be simply the “we’ve always done things this way” sickness. Many people, including the head of der Paritätische Forum, the newspaper editor, and many others have told me that the problem is at the administrative level. The organizations do have a need, but they do not have the administrative resources to manage the volunteers. If this is the case, why not either: 1)let the volunteers do administrative work that is easy to delegate or 2) give out work that does not require much overhead? It seems like most people I came in contact with expected to pigeon-hole me into a role that already existed within the organization, instead of allowing me to do something new. If all of the roles were filled, well, then they did not need any more help. At a higher level, it is easy to see that a lot of help is needed with the refugee issue, for example. I have an friend in the US who recently went to the mayor of a city and asked if he could volunteer and help out. The mayor gave him a job and now he sits in on meetings and helps organize events to help promote the city. This seems unthinkable in Germany, and other Germans have echoed this opinion.
  • People’s interpretation of a situation conform to their pre-existing biases. This is probably the most frustrating observation of all, and something I plan to expand into its own post. As I stated in the beginning of this post, many people were critical of the article about the situation that was in the newspaper, saying that I must have been the problem. Maybe part of it is my problem. I do not mean to make the claim that I tried every day for two years to volunteer and it never worked out. I just wanted to make the claim that it is more difficult to volunteer than it should be, and that I probably was not alone with such problems.3)And it appears I am not the only one. I was contacted by a man who read the article who also had had similar experiences and who told me he would likely never volunteer again as a result of it. Regardless, many people do not want to take a look at themselves or their society and make a change. If they had read an article about a land far, far away, they would have overwhelmingly agreed that the system in Land X was dysfunctional and urgently needed changing. But when the article is closer to home, there cannot be a problem. It must have been my fault, since I, in this case, am the aspect “furthest thing away.” How can dysfunctional systems change under such a structure of thought?
  • Due to these experiences, I have thought about developing a website where people with a social need could be matched with volunteers, to avoid the problems which I’ve outlined. As an example, a refugee using the site could get matched with a person who could help them learn German, with their daily visits to government agencies, or what have you. The match would have nothing to do with an organization, and could be efficient, and content agnostic, meaning any need could be fulfilled by a willing volunteer. This would save the volunteer from finding an appropriate organization, signing non-disclosure agreements, waiting on emails, etc. Maybe such a site already exists. If you know of one, let me know.

Julia and I are moving to Berlin in a few months and I have a feeling things will be somewhat different there, or at least I hope it. Either way, I will eventually write about my experiences here. If you have any comments, I would be interested to hear from you.

Footnotes   [ + ]

1. I think the most effective cause, to which one can contribute, is vegetarianism/veganism. There are many reasons for this: 1) Billions of animals are killed each year, most under terrible conditions. Since we know many of the animals we are talking about feel pain and enjoy experiences as we do, and that we do not need meat to survive, this is morally wrong and unjustifiable. 2) It takes more resources to feed animals than we get from the animal itself, contributing to hunger issues as well as water issues, since more water is required as well. 3) Meat production contributes more to global warming than cars do, so cutting down on meat would have a sizable, positive impact on one of the world’s other largest problems. I plan to discuss this issue in more depth in another post.
2. While all this was going on, I volunteered for the Deutsch-Amerikanisches Institut in Heidelberg, but only ended up getting called every Halloween and Easter to help run parties for kids. Something good, I suppose, but not really effective.
3. And it appears I am not the only one. I was contacted by a man who read the article who also had had similar experiences and who told me he would likely never volunteer again as a result of it.

Beauty in Complexity – Expressibility in Language

A common view about language held today is that all languages have the same expressibility. That is to say, if you can express something in one language, then you can express it equally in another. I think the acceptance of this viewpoint has to do with the rise of pluralism, as people no longer wish to make “my language is better than yours” claims for fear of being seen as an imperialist, who wishes to impose their will upon others. Further, there is an intuitive notion that we are all saying the same things, just using different words to do so. And yet, differences in expressibility between languages seem easy to produce. I will present a few such cases in German, Chinese, and English and show how they not only reveal differences in expressibility, but how out of this expressibility the possibility for beauty arises, where it otherwise could not have.


German is, in most aspects, more complex than English (with one large exception, which we will come to later). One such complexity is in German’s grammar. As one example, where English just has the so-called definite article “the”, German has man different options, depending on:

This complexity can be summed up in the following table.

German's definite articles compared to English's

German’s definite articles compared to English’s

There are similar (and even more complicated!) rules for indefinite articles (e.g. “a”), adjectives, etc.

So what is the point here? Why does this complexity exist? Well, in any language you need some way to be able to communicate what it is that you are trying to say. That is, after all, the point of language. To take a very simple example of what I mean, let us say that you want to express the idea that your friend is feeding his dog. That is the underlying, language-independent proposition that you are trying to communicate, and you would like to do it in English. You might build the following sentence to communicate this idea:

My friend is feeding the dog.

In German, you could similarly form the sentence:

Mein Freund füttert den Hund.

In German, due to its complexity, you have yet another option:

Den Hund füttert mein Freund.

Here, we moved “the dog” (den Hund) to the beginning of the sentence, but in German there is absolutely no confusion as to who is being fed, like there would be if we put the English:

The dog is feeding my friend.

German communicates who is doing what through the inflection, or alteration, of the various words in the sentence. The “den” in “den Hund” shows that the dog is the receiver of the feeding, so it does not really matter where we put it in the sentence – we already got the signal of which role it plays in the sentence. English does this mainly through a somewhat fixed word order. This allows German to be extremely flexible with its word order in a way that English cannot be. In fact, every single aspect of a sentence with the exception of the main verb can come at the beginning of a German sentence, so the sentence:

I have already gone with her to the movies this month.

can be written in German as:

I have already gone with her to the movies this month.

Already I have gone with her to the movies this month.

Gone I have with her to the movies this month.

With her I have gone to the movies this month.

To the movies I have gone with her this month.

This month I have gone with her to the movies.

You really get a choice as to which aspect of the sentence you want to stress. Poets often use such structures in English when they want express something in a different way. Germans can do this by just carrying out a normal conversation. Without this complexity of grammar, such sentences could not exist.


Chinese, on the other hand, has an extremely simple grammar. You don’t conjugate or inflect any aspect of the language. If you want to say:

Yesterday she gave me a book.

you say something like:

Yesterday (he or she, unspecified) to give I book.

You do not need to put “give” in the past tense, since the presence of “yesterday” tells you it already took place. You do not need to know if it is a he or a she unless you want to specify, and you do not need to change “I” to “me” to show that you are receiving the action. Further, you do not need to say whether or not if it is “a book”, “the book” or even specify whether or not it is one book or many.

However, Chinese has two complexities which English and German do not really have: tonality of language and a complex character system.

At the end of an English sentence, if you are are excited or surprised, you might express it not fully through words, but also with the tonality of your speech. Say “REALLY???” out loud. The pitch of your voice probably went up, from low to high. We use tones like this in a limited set of situations to change the expressive content of our words. In Chinese, each word has one of four such toneswhich allows the language to be very rich in a way it otherwise could not have been. It also gives the language a very musical aspect and it has even been shown that tonal language speakers might learn instruments more easily than their non-tonal counterparts.

Chinese also has a complex writing system with tens of thousands of distinct characters. This makes writing and reading extremely difficult, but as we have seen in other cases, this complexity allows for increased expressibility. In a Chinese course I took, we often had to draw a set of characters to gain practice writing and recognizing characters. Often the teacher collected my paper, looked puzzled for a second, and then suggested I make a couple of changes. In her head, certain characters that I had drawn were unbalanced. In my head, my character looked just like the example I had copied from, but to her something was not quite right. She had access to a level of beauty and composition that I simply do not have. If the content or meaning of the character were just a word translation, which in that moment I knew, we would have had the same idea in our heads. But is it not clear that my teacher and I perceived two very different things?


One richness of English that I never appreciated until speaking with many non native speakers is its phonetic complexity. English is composed from many different languages and it has, as a result, many different pronunciation systems within it. Words of French origin are pronounced in a French-like way, words of Germanic in a Germanic-like way, and so on. This is a very difficult aspect of English to master. Here is a part of a humorous poem designed to illustrate this complexity:

Pray, console your loving poet,
Make my coat look new, dear, sew it!
   Just compare heart, hear and heard,
   Dies and diet, lord and word.

Notice that “heart”, “hear”, and “heard” all have different vowel sounds, despite being orthographically very similar. Notice how “word” rhymes with “heard”, even though the vowels are totally different.

As you probably expect by now, I want to say that this complexity provides for the possibility of certain types of beauty. As an example of this beauty, many authors and poets have written literature that just uses one English vowel. In his anthology, Eunoia, for example, Christian Bök uses just one vowel in each chapter. Despite this restriction, the language has a tonal flow that could not have been possible if it were not for the fact that one vowel can take on many different sounds. A translation of this work into other languages is literally impossible, since part of the content of the propositions are in their form. 

Of course, not all beauty arises out of complexity. Sometimes it is simplicity that appears to us to be beautiful, such as the symmetry of faces. But, as we have seen, it is also the case that certain types of beauty arise only out of complexity. If one language contains such beauty and another does not, how can we claim they are both expressing the exact same content? I hope to have convinced you that, at least for some cases, we cannot.

Clickbait Killer – An App I Wrote to Remove Clickbait Spam from Facebook

If you have had a Facebook account for the past year or so, you couldn’t have missed the phenomenon that is clickbait. I was so annoyed by this that I wrote a small Chrome extension named “Clickbait Killer” that filtered out such garbage from my feed so I wouldn’t have to deal with it. I’ve released it so that you too can use it, should you so choose. You can find out more information on the Clickbait Killer page.

But what is clickbait, and why is it annoying? Clickbait is the use of hyperbolic and sensationalist content that lures (the “bait” part) users into clicking (the “click” part) to see more. The owners of the visited sites just want to rake in revenue from advertising placed on their pages. Actual content plays second fiddle to phrases that have been algorithmically shown to generate the most clicks.

One popular form of clickbait is the “X Reasons Why” list. As an example, I typed “14 Reasons Why” into a Google search, and got the following article as a result: 14 Scientific Reasons Why Bacon Is Really F*cking Good For You Notice the use of words like “Scientific” “Really” and “F*cking”. These are all attempts to get you to click on the article, regardless of what it contains. The first few paragraphs, if not the whole article, are generally very low content. The authors know how search engines work, and place certain keywords in the hopes that their article rises the Google search engine ranks. If someone searches for “is bacon good for me?”, for example, this anything-but-scientific article may pop up since it has all of the right words. That increases the chances the user clicks on this article, which in turn generates more money for the business.

Is there anything more satisfying, alluring or mouth-watering than bacon? A sizzling pan of bacon brightens the cloudiest of mornings; it’s the golden ticket to a perfect day. Everything good starts (and, realistically, ends) with bacon. – What is the actual content here?

Another morally worrying aspect of clickbait is that the linked-to articles are often content that is simply relinked from elsewhere, which may have been itself relinked. Check out this example I saw today on my Facebook feed (also, notice the hyperbolic domain “” – a sign that you are in for some clickbait): This site hired someone to find an already viral video, add some intro text that helps them increase their numbers, and repackage the content as their own.

At least in this case the original content owner got views on their Youtube page. In many other cases content is taken with no attribution back to the original author.
An excellent New Yorker article, that I highly recommend (if you can stomach it), tells the sordid tale of a chain of content stealing:

At the bottom of a Dose post, there is usually a small “hat tip” (abbreviated as “H/T”). Many people don’t notice this citation, if they even reach the bottom of the post. On Dose’s first day of existence, its most successful list was called “23 Photos of People from All Over the World Next to How Much Food They Eat Per Day.” It was a clever illustration of global diversity and inequity: an American truck driver holding a tray of cheeseburgers and Starbucks Frappuccinos; a Maasai woman posing with eight hundred calories’ worth of milk and porridge. Beneath the final photograph, a line of tiny gray text read “H/T Elite Daily.” It linked to a post that Elite Daily, a Web site based in New York, had published a month earlier (“See the Incredible Differences in the Daily Food Intake of People Around the World”). That post, in turn, had linked to UrbanTimes (“80 People, 30 Countries and How Much They Eat on a Daily Basis”), which had credited Amusing Planet (“What People Eat Around the World”), which had cited a 2010 radio interview with Faith D’Aluisio and Peter Menzel, the writer and the photographer behind the project.

The article goes on to mention that the actual content creators invested 1 million dollars and 4 years of their lives creating this portfolio of images and are now trying to sell books and license their images in an attempt to recoup some of the money. Instead, the money for the content goes to the chain of clickbait sites who have taken the images illegally and immorally.

As I have mentioned before, it seems like calculated advertising is replacing content in more and more areas of life, and I find it very troublesome. Clickbait is a clear example of this and perhaps its highest incarnation. Instead of focusing on creating content that people enjoy and find meaningful, these companies use math and psychology to maximize revenue, often at the expense of actual content creators and disappointed users.

As always, I am interested to hear your ideas on this topic. As a reminder, you can download my app on the Clickbait Killer Project Page or download the source code on my Github page.

The Problems of Pluralism

The following seems to occur more and more often in my life: I am in a social situation and a morally substantial issue is raised, such as animal rights or the role advertising should play in society. I have thought about both of these topics at length and feel I have a lot to contribute to a meaningful conversation, but that is often not what I get. When raised, someone either very quickly makes a joke (e.g. “But bacon”, “More meat for me”) or they attempt a couple of arguments and then in the face of a counter-argument utter something like Well, listen. You do what you want to do and I’ll do what I want to do, as if to further the conversation would be a violation of their rights or that our positions should both be considered equal and undecidable. This is the ultimate pluralistic statement, and the conversation has to end here. It is extremely common and it is extremely disappointing.

Pluralism, the idea of a society’s recognition of everyone’s different lifestyles, interests, convictions, values, etc., has its roots in an intuitive (to Modernity) notion: No one should be able to control you or force you to do things. You are no longer under control of a king who dictates the bounds of your freedom. You are no longer a serf or a slave who works the land, subservient to the will of others. With the Enlightenment came individualism. These all sound like good things, and to a large extent they are. I argue, however, that our modern version of pluralism goes too far, and impoverishes our democracy, our understanding of one another, and our personal morality.

A little background: Political theorists have historically struggled with two intuitive concepts: rights and “the good”. Rights are the things that persons have that cannot be taken away for any reason (theoretically). You just have them by virtue of the fact that you are a person, and no one should be able to violate them.

The philosophical notion of “the good” or “the good life” is more abstract. It is that thing that a government strives to provide for its people, and what people want to provide for their families. People have different definitions of what the good is, and that causes serious debates. People’s different conceptions of the good have come into conflict with each other throughout history and the story usually ends with the strong person/land imposing their will on the weaker.

People have been arguing over rights and the good for a long time now. Some believe that the good has a priority over the right, such as the utilitarian thinker Jeremy Bentham. This means that if you go back and time before World War II you are morally obligated to kill Hitler given the chance, because the good of the many takes the precedence over the rights of the one. Seems easy enough. It also means, however, that if you as a healthy person go to the doctor for a checkup, and you have 5 organs which 5 other dying patients urgently need, that the doctor is justified (indeed, required!) in killing you to save the others. Seems wrong. “What about our right to live?” we want to say.

Others, such as Immanuel Kant, have thought that the right has absolute priority over the good. It does not matter what the circumstances are, you have your rights. That means you must not shoot Hitler and you are safe at the doctor’s. “I can live with that”, you might say. But imagine that a crazy person hijacked a plane you are on and is about to kill all of the passengers, including him- or herself. Can’t you stop them by killing them? I mean, they die in either case. No, says Kant and thinkers like him: they have a right to live and you cannot take that away, no matter what the circumstances are. Doesn’t seem so good now.

Okay – I always try to sneak in a bit of philosophy into my posts, and that is probably enough for this time, and a good refresher from this post. Back to the main point: Over the past couple hundred years, with the goal of avoiding oppression from peoples and governments, we have seen more “right over the good” type theories. This, in addition to increases in market and capitalistic thinking, have caused the tabling of many discussions of the good life, with the idea that we all have the right to do whatever we want without reference to any particular good and that markets will non-judgmentally decide the outcome of moral questions. This has led to a very pluralistic attitude toward morals and values: to each his or her own. You think prostitution is wrong? Well, don’t do it – but let buyers and sellers in that market do what they want. Think abortion is wrong? Well, don’t do it – but don’t tell others that they shouldn’t. As Michael Sandel, political philosopher, claims, this type of hands-off framework, leads to a very impoverished democracy. It makes discussions of moral questions seem superfluous, as all values have the illusion of being equal.

I strongly believe moral issues such as these should be able to be discussed and further, should be discussed, even if should is a dirty word these days. Consider my example of animal rights presented at the beginning of this piece. When I engage on the topic, people usually say pretty early on “you do what you want to do, and I’ll do what I want to do”. The implicit clause of this argument is “our decisions on this matter are morally equal.” or “This isn’t a moral issue at all.” or “I have a right to do what I want, even the right to not consider what is moral and what isn’t.” But do you have the right to ignore a moral argument in the face of good argumentation? Does a slavery advocate have the right to ignore anti-slavery arguments? Are the positions on slavery morally equal? Moral questions don’t go away just because we do not talk about them, and not all moral positions are equal. Sandel argues that the rise in religious extremism could be partially a result of our unwillingness to engage in moral debates. When everyone takes a passive approach to morality, it allows those with extreme opinions at the fringes to push through and take a bigger piece of the pie. Regardless of the truth of this claim, I believe we as a society need to engage more with moral questions and should feel safe raising such issues, even if and especially if they are controversial. When we are afraid of offending others by broaching a moral issue or when we brush off moral argumentation as “to each his or her own”, we passively assert a falsity: that all moral positions are created equal.

Calculated Experience

Years ago, I was hanging out with a group of friends, one of which brought up a joke he had recently seen online. Although the content of the joke would probably make this, the second sentence of this post, much more interesting, I have to say I can’t remember it. And the joke isn’t really the point. The point was the almost everyone in the group had already seen the exact same joke online. The joke was posted on Reddit, a popular news aggregation site where people can up- and downvote issues as they see fit. I remember thinking to myself (and I think saying out loud), that it was incredible that among the millions of jokes that are posted every single day online, this group of people had all seen the exact same one. This post you are reading has been in the back of my head ever since.

In more and more areas of life, at least it seems to me, experiences are being quantified according to a formula and then spit back out to users, sorted accordingly. I say “experiences of life” because I can’t think of a better phrase that accounts for the broadness of such disparate items as “knowledge”, “current events”, “music”, and “film”, just to name a few. Instead of a user having to make a conscious decision as to what they want to experience online, the answer is just given to them. Maybe some examples will clear up what I mean.

  • You go to and naturally start at the top of the page – this is where the most highly rated items of the day are. Since they were the most highly rated by other users, chances are you will find the item good as well. You read the description, decide it is good enough, and click the link. Now you see the most highly rated comment of the thread and view comments in this order until you get tired of the thread.
  • You are having a party and use Spotify, a music application. You type in “party music” and see already created playlists. You click the first or second playlist and your party is ready to go.
  • You are on Netflix, a movie streaming application, and you want to watch a new movie. Movies are presented to you based on a complicated rating system, including feedback based on what you have watched and liked in the past. You pick one that is a relatively good match.
  • You log into Facebook and have the default “Top Stories” mode selected, in which you see stories presented in an order based on Facebook’s algorithm for “top”. From Facebook: “, it uses factors such as how many friends are commenting on a post to aggregate content that you’ll find interesting. It displays stories based on their relevance, rather than in chronological order.

This list could obviously go on and on. It goes without saying that these services provide benefits to society, but I think there are some troubling aspects that one could raise about such systems and how they could affect society as a whole:

  • More and more people access the exact same information from the same sources. At a micro level you are probably going to find information that you find interesting. At a macro level, the chances are slimmer that you will come across someone with a different viewpoint than you. You have been consuming the same information as others, so the exchange of information between two parties will be lower. Instead of everyone being able to contribute a unique, nuanced perspective on a complicated issue, you are more likely to hear just a couple of points, and likely ones you have already heard and ones you may have given yourself.
  • The information people know will be highly stratified. When you do encounter someone who has a different opinion than you, then chances of a meaningful discussion being possible are lower. You subscribe to “” on Facebook and you and thousands of other subscribers comment on the posts, all confirming ideas you all thought yesterday. You encounter someone who subscribed to “” who did the same. You both think the other side is just saying gibberish. How could this not be the case? The information you have allowed yourself to consume is highly stratified and never challenges you to think in a different way from the exact way you already think, which you are already sure is the right way (If you are stuck inside of a system, how could it be the wrong way?).
  • There is a certain loss of agency in giving up the choice to make a conscious decision. If an algorithm is deciding for you, you aren’t deciding. When I was younger, going to get a new CD was a big, fun decision and after the purchase I listened to each song on the CD over and over. I don’t do that anymore. If I hear any sort of self-generated mix it is usually the best hit from each of the best artists in a particular genre. I don’t hear the other songs from the artist that aren’t the “best” and I don’t hear from the “non-best” bands. Music touches me less directly. I think it is a shame. Imagine an ice cream flavor machine choosing your flavor for you at the store. It determined that most people that day liked chocolate and so everyone, including you, gets chocolate. It tastes pretty good. You eat it and you go home.

What can we do to combat problems like this? Improvise – do things you don’t normally do. Read a newspaper from a publisher that you have never read before. Read a site that has the exact opposite view on an issue you have an opinion about. Go into a bookstore and buy a book you didn’t read an Amazon review for on a topic that you think is interesting but have never explored. Ask someone who you don’t usually talk to about music what they have been listening to lately. Hit the “Random article” button in Wikipedia and follow the links down the rabbit hole. Tell me other ideas you have!




Scattered throughout the streets of Germany (as well as in many other streets in Europe and in Russia) are so-called Stolpersteine:


12 Stolpersteine, with my shoes for size and layout reference.

12 Stolpersteine, with my shoes for size and layout reference.


These “stumbling blocks”, as they would be translated, are set in the ground in front of houses of victims of the Holocaust. They are not quite flush with the ground, but are instead raised a little bit higher, allowing one to stumble while passing by. Each mini monument is engraved with information about the victim and their fate. The 12 featured here are from Karlsruhe, and tell the stories of twelve representatives of Parliament who were forbidden from doing their jobs, arrested, deported, interrogated, sent to concentration camps, or any combination thereof.

I think these stones, designed and laid by German artist Gunter Demnig, are an amazing form of art. They are deeply meaningful, evoke many emotions, and preserve a dark history so that it cannot be obscured with time. They honor and commemorate. They bring about deep reflection in the viewer. You don’t have to go to a museum to see them; they confront you whether you want them to or not. I suggest reading the wikipedia article for more information. If you speak German, you can also read the Gunter’s site.

The Existential Prefix: The German “Er”

German, like English, has prefixes that attach to the front of words to alter their meaning. Some, like the English “pre”, which usually carries some idea of “before”, and “re”, which often contains the idea of “again”, are pretty easy to get ahold of relatively quickly. There are others though, that are not so clear and take time to grasp.

One such prefix is the German “er”, which in many of its usages seems to me to be very existential. “Er”, as we shall see, usually attaches to the front of verbs to alter their meaning, giving it a more human touch and often having the notion of the highest and most complete form of a given act. Oftentimes there are no good translations into English for these words, as we use the un-“er” form if we want to express the same thing, albeit with less specificality. This is an aspect of the German language that I have really come to love, as I first thought that when I translated two words and got the same translation that they were just synonyms. It took me a while to realize that, no, we in English just don’t make the fine-tuned distinction that is made in German. Here are some examples of the prefix “er” in use in German:

  • Erleben: The verb “leben” is translated as “to live”. A plant can “leben”, just as I can, but the “er” in the front of “erleben” gives it more of a personhood touch likely unknown to plants: to have an experience – to “live through” something might be a good translation.
  • Erfahren: “Fahren”, as I mentioned in another entry, means “to fare”, as in “to travel somewhere”. Adding the “er” to make “erfahren” once again takes this and makes it existential. Confusingly, if you translate “erleben” and “erfahren”, you will get the result: “to experience”. I believe (and Germans can correct me here), that “erfahren” is more of an intellectual experience: Through a lot of experience at your job, you can skills that you wouldn’t have had otherwise. This seems to be more erfahren. If you lived through the Cold War, this would be more erleben, but of course you would erfahren something here as well, because you got some experience that would shape your life and the way you think about things.
  • Erkältung: The common cold. Just like in English, the word for “cold” (“kalt”) is reused, but the “er” is added to give it, in my opinion, a more human quality.
  • Erfolg: “folgen” means “to follow”. The noun form, with “er” on the front, “Erfolg”, means “success”. I have the feeling of following something to the end, such as your dreams. A bit poetic, perhaps.
  • Erbauen: “bauen” means to build. Erbauen also means “to build” in English, but in German it carries a notion of building something bigger and maybe more permanent, like a Cathedral.
  • Erlernen: Similar to “erbauen”. “Lernen” means “to learn”, but “erlernen” is more like “to master”. To learn something so long and in such detail, that you own it.
  • Erdenken: “denken” means to think. “Erdenken” is more like developing something new after giving it a lot of thought.

That is probably enough examples, although there are many more. The nice part about all of this is that I can get a feeling for a word even when I have never seen it before, which I think happens a lot less in English. Consider the following: You are armed with the information that “to know someone” in English is the German verb “kennen”. Now you see a sentence with the verb “erkennen”. You can have a pretty good idea that the verb (although not always!) has something to do with knowing the person. In this case it turns out to be “to recognize”. Now, if you are learning English you would be hard pressed to understand “to recognize” if you had never seen the word before. Sure, you probably know what “re” does here, but you would have to know some etymology to come up with the “cognition” sense of “cognize”. In German, you can clearly see the connection to “kennen”. To take this a step further, there is also “anerkennen”, which is also “to recognize” in the sense of “to acknowledge” as in “We recognize Palestine as a state.” Again, if you had never seen “to acknowledge” before in English, you might not know what to do with the word. In German, you can more clearly see the connection.

The German language contains many prefixes that have interesting shades of meaning. It is just one aspect of the language that is fascinating to me and I hope to you as well. I plan to outline more of these interests in the future, but in the meantime, comments and questions are warmly welcome.

My Recent Trip to RPI

Last week, Julia and I went up to my old college: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York. I hadn’t been there in quite a while and now that I am bit older and am attending another university (Universität Heidelberg) in Germany, some things were apparent that hadn’t been while I was there. This is, then, a short list of random observations that I made in my few hours at RPI.

Dining Hall

The food in the dining hall was okay, but not as good as I remember. There were far more posters on the wall calling for people to eat healthy. Each section had a vegetarian meal and there was even a vegan meal in the center of the room. I assume they offer it every day. I was really happy to see this. They have the same in Heidelberg, but I was not sure the same movement in the states.

The Commons cafeteria at RPI.

The Commons cafeteria at RPI.

There were still the same two soda fountains in the cafeteria offering a variety of drinks. Refills are free, as you are only required to pay once when entering the cafeteria. In Germany by comparison, no drinks are free (including water) and prices usually start at 2 Euros, or $2.50 for a 20 ounce bottle. There is a strange incentive to take soda/juice when you have already paid the entrance fee. Even though I drink water 90% of the time, I felt like I was wasting something by not taking a free “upgrade” drink. I can’t help but wonder if small differences like this partially account for the weight/diabetes epidemic in America.

Land of the free soda.

Land of the free soda.

On the same topic, after offering free hard and soft ice cream with toppings, by the exit you could get a Magnum or Nutty Buddy ice cream “to go.”

The technological church

I always thought it was weird that an old church in RPI was turned into a computing center, but I never realized just how weird. I can’t imagine another time in all of history when such a blasphemous act could be committed. What better tangible example of Nietzsche’s idea of the shift from faith in God to a faith in Science?

The front of the Voorhees Computing Center.

The front of the Voorhees Computing Center.

Stained glass windows among computers.

Stained glass windows among computers.

The EMPAC Building

When I graduated in 2005, the new EMPAC building wasn’t yet completed. It is quite an architectural marvel. Julia and I got to walk around a bit inside and go into the huge blimp-shaped theater that protrudes out of the building.

The EMPAC building.

The EMPAC building.

The reflection of the city in the glass of the EMPAC building.

The reflection of the city in the glass of the EMPAC building.


I felt very nostalgic when I visited RPI, which I hadn’t counted on. I had already visited a few times after I graduated and didn’t feel very emotional about it. I appreciated the architecture, the landscaping, and the weather more and genuinely missed being there with all of my good friends, with whom, I am happy to say, I still get to see much more often than most other people I talk to – what luck.

On a final note, one thing I don’t miss is the price. After we got home I looked it up: $46,000 per year without room and without food. All in all, you can count on $60,000 a year. That is $240,000, or one house, if you graduate in four years. In Heidelberg I pay 135 Euros a semester: less than the prices of two books at RPI (sidenote: I had to buy no books at Heidelberg last semester). This tiny price includes discounted food and public transportation as well as a free sport and fitness program, psychological services, etc. Many people in Germany have asked me how and why Americans do it instead of protesting: for Germans this price is unthinkable. I don’t have a good answer for them as I don’t know myself. I  guess we don’t think there is another option. I am here to tell you there is. People in the USA have laughed when I have told them to educate their child in Germany, but I’ve been serious each time. You get to be a part of a wonderful culture, expand your horizons, save enough money to buy a house, and the only “cost” is learning the German language, which is actually a joy in disguise.

On Advertising

I wanted to name this article “Why I hate (almost) all advertising”, but I figured many less people would click on it as the position seems very extreme. And maybe my position on the matter is extreme, but of course that in and of itself does not necessarily make it wrong. I think we have gone morally and intellectually way off course with advertising.

In this article, I hope to outline a brief history of advertising, where I think it has gone wrong, and where I think it is (wrongly) going in the future. I hope to make a compelling argument that convinces more than zero people to move slightly in the direction of agreeing with me, something that I think is hard to do nowadays. Even if people strongly disagree, I welcome any conversation on the topic. Anyway, my attempt…

A Brief History of Advertising

According to Neil Postman in his book Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business, America saw its first paid newspaper advertisements in the early 1704. Two such advertisements took the form of a Wanted ad for the capture of a thief and the renting of a plot of land. These and other such advertisements during Postman’s “Age of Exposition” and what I will call “Phase 1 of Advertising” were predicated on the fact that the customers were literate, rational, and analytical. The advertisements actually made claims about their products.

During “Phase 2”, which Postman describes well in the following quote, we see a dramatic shift:

As late as 1980, advertising, still understood to consist of words, was regarded as an essentially serious and rational enterprise whose purpose was to convey information and make claims in propositional form. Advertising was, as Stephen Douglas said in another context, intended to appeal to understanding, not to passions. This is not to say that during the period of typographic display, the claims that were put forward were true. Words cannot guarantee their truth content. Rather, they assemble a context in which the question, ‘Is this true or false?’, is relevant.

Postman goes on to say that this is the time during which America saw its first illustrations in advertising in addition to the use of slogans (e.g. “You press the button; we do the rest.”) This is followed by jingles and rhymes. Postman adds:

By the turn of the century, advertisers no longer assumed rationality on the part of their customers. Advertising became one part depth psychology, one part aesthetic theory.

It is hard to disagree with Postman here, even today. Almost no commercial today, written or televised, assumes consumer rationality. Many state no facts about the product or service to be sold, but instead rely upon emotional appeal. While heavily utilized throughout the past 100 years, I believe this phase is starting to be eclipsed by a new, socially and politically motivated breed of advertising. This form puts the product or service being peddled in the extreme background and relies upon the consumer agreeing to an ideology to make the sale. I call this Phase 3, and will describe the dangers of this as well as Phase 2 below.

What is wrong with Advertising?

Advertising in and of itself does not seem morally ambiguous. In fact, what I have described as Phase 1 above seems to be perfectly fine. If the advertisement makes you aware of a brand and does so in an honest way, then there seems to be nothing wrong (One could argue, that advertisements being everywhere in the modern world could be seen as wrong – in this article I hope to only discuss within the context of a given advertisement). What does it mean to be honest? This is where Phase 2 of advertising goes wrong. Postman’s claim that advertising in this period often contains no truth propositional content seems hardly debatable. Remember, this means that the content of the advertisement can be true or false. As an example “Fords are the safest automobile as rated by X” can be either true or false. “Just do it” or “Obey your thirst” have no truth propositional content and are thus empty: they tell you nothing of the product and make no actual claim that can be verified.

Commercials of this era often do not attempt to claim anything at all and often rely on emotional appeal to sell a product. A great example is from Fancy Feast:

What have you learned about Fancy Feast in this commercial? Absolutely nothing. Further, the brand scores particularly low compared to other cat foods. This does not faze most people I talk to, probably because this type of marketing is so rampant that they expect it and only hope to be entertained. When people talk about and spread a commercial like this because of the emotional appeal (marriage, love, cute cat), the emotional content crowds out any need for propositional content. As a result, successful companies become not those that produce the best cat food, but those that produce the best marketing and/or advertising teams. This is why ALS received a lot of money for the Ice Bucket Challenge even though relatively few people contract ALS and we are nowhere near to a cure: because the advertising and marketing plans for ALS were much better than for other charities (Consider donating at to get the most out of your dollar!). Psychological, manipulative tricks are developed and utilized to get you to buy a product, instead of the product relying upon its own merits.

Notice that in Phase 2, the product has receded into the background. The goal is to get you into a mood or feeling and then present to you an often unrelated product, in the hopes that you associate the two in your head. In Phase 3 of Advertising, the product or service recedes possibly even more, and ideology replaces direct emotional appeals. Take, for instance, the following Ax commercial:

Like Phase 2, we see the product only at the very end of the video. But here we see more. At the end of the video we find out something about “Peace One Day” and “Supporting Peace One Day” and we are asked to tweet with #KissForPeace, a phrase that contains the product name in an insidious way; a tweeter might see the phrase and retag it without even being aware of the Axe campaign to sell more Axe. Here we have the new Axe product bound up with notions of patriotism, peace, and love much more directly than in the Fancy Feasts commercial.  We are for peace (who isn’t?) and want to share it with our friends on social media. Fancy Feasts made a cute commercial that reminds one of positive emotions. Axe becomes a symbol of peace.

Another example for Dove:

Here we are told that beauty is on the inside (from a beauty product company!) and want to invest in a campaign to lift women’s feeling of self-worth. Notably, this commercial does not even advertise a specific product, but wants you to form a general positive association with the brand. The product, therefore, has receded into nothingness.

Lately there have been many such “see yourself positively, ladies” advertisements. The feminist that I am feels crushed by the fact that these advertisements are so tricky and serve to sell more products. To me, the fact that they are selling a product compromises the positive message. This is likea really good friend of yours says they heard of a great new plan for you to make money and you later find out that they make more money in the process by selling to you. It is disappointing and deceptive. Here is one for Always, again, no specific product:

Here is one for Verizon:

These have drifted so far from selling any actual product or service that it is almost unbelievable. These videos attempt to convey that these companies understand deep, human emotions and needs, but that is something they can never do, for they compromise their ideals by virtue of the fact that they are selling something. As a result, “I’m lovin’ it” can never say anything about love, no matter how hard it tries.

What Can We Do?

When a problem is so ubiquitous, it can seem overwhelming and fruitless to even try to find a solution. Still, I think we need to do our best. For one example, I think we can learn more about the various tricks that companies employ when creating advertising. A good start is to review some informal fallacies, something that I strongly believe should be taught in high school, if not grade school. These show the various ways that claims can be falsely made (when there is a claim at all! (“Just do it!”). People of all ages that I know seem unaware of the common techniques that advertisers (and politicians, journalists, etc) use to make (unfounded) points. We can think more critically when we see a commercial and analyze what it is trying to convey, instead of simply accepting that commercials can or should be pure entertainment completely divorced from the product or service they are trying to sell.